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Plant Breeding

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Plant breeding is made up of 2 words- works and breeding. This intends location is breeding among 2 different type of works of desired varieties.  The desired varieties mean plants should person accrued tolerance to biology stresses (salinity, utmost temperatures, drought, etc.), guidance to pathogens (viruses, fungi, and bacteria), and accrued tolerance to insect pests. All these qualities will thief successful getting amended output and disease-free plants. These each traits altogether, summation nan output of plants and make works illness free. Plant breeding was first utilized during nan greenish revolution. Let’s understand nan greenish revolution.

Objectives of Plant Breeding

The objectives of works breeding are arsenic follows: 

  1. To summation nan output of nan crop.
  2. To get improved value of nan crop.
  3. To create a disease-free crop.
  4. To get plants pinch desired agronomic characteristics aliases traits.
  5. To create plants that tin defy utmost biology accent (salinity, precocious temperature, etc.)

Plant Breeding

Types of Plant Breeding

Breeding among nan plants tin beryllium of nan pursuing types:

Inbreeding

Inbreeding refers to nan breeding among intimately related individuals.

Backcrossing Breeding

Backcrossing breeding refers to nan breeding of a hybrid organism pinch 1 of its genetically akin parents. It is done to isolate desired characteristics successful a related group of plants.

Mutation Breeding

Mutation breeding refers to nan breeding that tin beryllium induced artificially induced successful plants by vulnerability to radiation aliases chemicals. This results successful caller varieties.

Genetic Engineering Breeding

It involves familial devices Genetic, recombinant DNA exertion to insert desirable traits into plants. The resulting plants are known arsenic transgenic plants aliases genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Somatic Hybridization

A  hybrid produced by nan fusion of somatic cells of 2 varieties aliases type is called a somatic hybrid and nan process of producing somatic hybrids is known arsenic somatic hybridization. It helps successful nan transportation of desirable characters from chaotic aliases unrelated harvest type to harvest plants.

Plant Breeding Steps

The steps progressive successful processing caller varieties of plants are arsenic follows:

Collection of Variability

Variability intends variety successful familial creation (alleles of genes) which brings desired traits successful progeny plants for illustration tolerance to pests, utmost temperatures, etc. This tin beryllium achieved by nan postulation and preservation of earthy genes of different chaotic varieties, species, and relatives of nan cultivated species. This postulation of plants/seeds pinch each nan divers alleles for each genes successful a fixed harvest is called germplasm collection. So, germplasm postulation brings variability successful plants. Once germplasm is collected, nan adjacent measurement is nan information and action of parents.

Evaluation and Selection of Parents

Two aliases much plants pinch desired germplasm are known arsenic parents. These parents are now selected and multiplied. For example-grain magnitude successful atom tin beryllium longer, intermediate, aliases shorter. If longer seeds are selected and sown past nan adjacent procreation harvest will person mean and longer grains than nan original population. Once parents are selected, nan adjacent measurement is cross-hybridization among selected parents.

Cross-hybridization among Selected Parents

Cross hybridization is nan crossing of 2 aliases much types of plants pinch desired traits successful specified a measurement that early generations will person traits of some parents. For example, nan precocious protein quality of 1 genitor tin beryllium cross-hybridized pinch illness guidance from different parent. This will genetically harvester nan desired characteristics successful nan progeny plant. However, cross-hybridization is simply a very time-consuming and tedious process arsenic first nan pollen grains from nan antheral genitor person to beryllium collected and placed connected nan stigma of nan flowers female parent.  For example-wheat variety, HUW 468 took 12 years to develop. Once cross-hybridization is done, nan adjacent measurement is nan action and testing of superior recombinants.

Selection and testing of Superior Recombinants

This measurement involves nan action of progeny pinch desired characteristic operation aliases called recombinants. The progeny harvest is superior to some of nan parents. The progeny obtained are self-pollinated for respective generations till they scope a authorities of uniformity (homozygosity) truthful that nan characters will not segregate successful nan progeny. The self-pollinated progeny for longer generations will nutrient a axenic line. All plants successful nan axenic statement person identical genotypes. An illustration of nan axenic statement is HUW 468 wheat variety. Once self-pollination is done, nan adjacent measurement is testing, releasing, and commercialization of caller cultivars.

Testing, release, and commercialization of New Cultivars

The selected lines are evaluated for their output and different agronomic traits for illustration quality, illness resistance, etc. This tin beryllium achieved by increasing these plants successful nan investigation fields and signaling their capacity nether perfect fertilizer, irrigation, and different crop management practices, etc. for astatine slightest 3 increasing seasons astatine different locations successful nan country. The information successful investigation fields is followed. The harvest obtained is compared pinch nan champion disposable harvest cultivar and seeds are multiplied and yet made disposable to farmers.

Applications of Plant Breeding

Plant breeding has respective applications. Let’s understand them 1 by one-

Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance

The output of plants tin beryllium reduced by a wide scope of fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens, particularly successful tropical climates. These pathogens origin respective diseases, that tin beryllium fungal (rusts, e.g., brownish rust of wheat, reddish rot of sugarcane, and precocious blight of potato); germs (black rot of crucifers), and viruses (tobacco mosaic, turnip mosaic, etc.) This tin lead to 20-30% of harvest loss. This nonaccomplishment tin beryllium flooded by works breeding. To execute this, nan very first measurement is to cognize astir nan causative organism and nan mode of transmission.

Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests

Plants tin besides beryllium damaged by pests and insects. So, works breeding done hybridization and action helps successful getting (seed) disease and insect-free harvest varieties. However, immoderate plants themselves are (seed) disease resistant owed to their morphological, biochemical, aliases physiological characteristics. For example- dairy leaves successful respective plants are associated pinch guidance to insect pests, e.g, guidance to jassids successful fabric and cereal leafage beetle successful wheat. Similarly, precocious aspartic acid, debased nitrogen, and sweetener contented successful maize lead to guidance to maize stem borers. Some insect (seed) disease guidance varieties are fixed below:

CropVarietyInsect pests

Brassica 

(rapeseed mustard)

Pusa GauravAphids
Flat bean

Pusa Sem 2

Pusa Sem 3

Jassids, aphids, and consequence borer
Okra (Bhindi)

Pusa Sawani

Pusa A-4

Shoot and consequence borer

Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality

Plant breeding helps successful getting improved varieties of crops pinch higher levels of nutrition. This tin beryllium achieved by process biofortification successful which crops pinch higher levels of vitamins and minerals, aliases higher macromolecule and healthier fats are bred together. The improved crops person amended macromolecule contented and quality, lipid contented and quality, vitamin content, and micronutrient and mineral content. For example-maize hybrids made successful 2000 had doubly nan magnitude of nan amino acids, lysine, and tryptophan, compared to existing maize hybrids. Similarly, Atlas 66 (wheat variety) has precocious macromolecule content.

FAQs connected Plant Breeding

Question 1: What are nan awesome problems faced by farmers earlier works breeding?

Answer:  

The problems faced by farmers earlier works breeding are arsenic follows:

  • The crops aliases seeds were easy infested by insects aliases pests.
  • The crops were not capable to withstand utmost temperatures.
  • Yield of crops was very less.
  • Crops deficiency nutritional value.

Question 2: What is works mutation?

Answer: 

Plant mutation intends a alteration successful nan familial (DNA) creation of a plant. It tin beryllium done physically by irradiating crops pinch gamma rays aliases chemically.

Question 3: What is an iron-fortified crop?

Answer: 

Iron-fortified is simply a atom assortment that contains complete 5 times arsenic overmuch robust arsenic successful commonly consumed varieties.

Question 4: Give an illustration of mutation breeding.

Answer: 

Mung legume is resistant to yellowish mosaic microorganism and powdery mildew was induced by mutations.


Editor: Naga



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